Language and Bible Timeline


Sem (Shem)

(Hebrew “name”, “fame”, “renown”; in Septuagint, Sem; A.V., Shem.)

Son of Noah; according to Genesis 10:21, the eldest. His birth and generations are recorded in Genesis 5:31; 11:10 sqq. (cf. 1 Chronicles 1:4, 17 sq.; Luke 3:36). He lived to be six hundred years of age. An incident, narrated Genesis 9:18 sqq., discloses his filial reverence. His reward was a blessing of great import (cf. Ecclesiasticus 49:19). Noah’s prophetic words (according to Massoretic Text), “Blessed be Yahweh, the God of Sem” (for the glory of a nation is its God), designate, in a special manner, Yahweh as the God of Sem and, consequently, Sem as the bearer of the Messianic promises. Having enumerated the Semitic nations, whose habitat extended over the central portions of the then known world (Genesis 10:21-31), the Sacred Writer resumes (11:10 sqq.) the genealogy of the descendants of Arphaxad, the direct ancestor of Abraham, David, and Christ.
Sources

HUMMELAUER, Comment. in Genesim (Paris. 1895), loc. cit., and HAGEN, Lex. Bibl. (Paris, 1905-11), both in Cursus Scripturae Sacrae; STRACK, Genesis (Munich, 1894), loc. cit. in Kurzgef. Kommentar z. d. hl. Schriften Alt. u. N. Test.; HOBERG, Die Genesis (Freiburg, 1908), loc. cit.; MAAS, Christ in Type and Prophecy, I (New York), 212 sq.
AHRC Home > Timeline
Events Alphabet Inscription Bible text Translation Discovery Comments
2000
BC
Early Semitic
The known beginning of the early Semitic alphabet is used in Egypt and Sinai penninsula.

Wadi-El-Hhol
The oldest early Semitic script is inscibed on rock in Wadi-El-Hhol, Egypt.

1900
BC

1800
BC

1700
BC
Patriarchs
The patriarchs, Abraham, Isaac and Jacob, the first recorded Hebrews, lived in Canaan.

1600
BC

1500
BC

Siniatic The early Semitic script is written on rocks at Serabit El-Kadim.

1400
BC

1300
BC

1200
BC Middle Semitic The middle Semitic alphabet , also called paleo-Hebrew, was adopted by the Greeks.
Exodus

Greek
The Israelites leave Egypt.
1100
BC

1000
BC Tel-Zayit The Tel-Zayit abecedary is inscribed using the middle Semitic script.

Gezer Calander The Gezer calendar is inscribed using the middle Semitic script.
900
King David
King David rules over the souther kingdom of Judah.
BC

Meshe Stele The Mesha Stele (or Moabite stone) is inscribed using the middle Semitic script.

800
BC Siloam The Siloam inscription in Hezekiah’s tunnel is inscribed using the middle Semitic script.
Tel Dan The Tel-Dan inscription, which mentions the “house of David,” is inscribed using the middle Semitic script.

700
Israel captured
The northern Kingdom of Israel is captured by the Assyrians and the Israelites are taken into captivity (720).
BC
Roman
Romans adopt the Greek alphabet.

Ketef-Hinom Scrolls
Small silver scrolls, inscribed with the Aaronic blessing and other prayers, are inscirbed using the middle Semitic script and placed in a tomb at Ketef Hinnom in Israel.

600
BC
Lachish Ostraca
The Lachish inscriptions are inscribed using the middle Semitic script.

Judah captured
The southern Kingdom of Judah is captured by the Babylonians and the Jews are taken into captivity (586).
500 Judah returns The Jews return to Israel from Babylon and rebuild the temple (516).
BC sacarphogus.png
Sarcaphogus
The Phoenician Sarcophagus in Sidon is inscribed using the middle Semitic script.
Late Semitic The middle Semitic script evolves into the late Semitic script, also called the Square Aramaic script.

400
BC

300
Septuagint
Jewish scholars translate the Torah, the first five books of Moses into Greek.
BC

200
BC Nash Papyrus The Nash Papyrus is written in Egypt using the late Semitic script.

100
BC Dead Sea Scrolls The first of the Dead Sea Scrolls are written, mostly in the late Semitic script, but some are written in the middle Semitic script.

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0

Temple destroyed The second temple in Jerusalem is destroyed by the Romans (70).
100 Targum Onkelos The Torah is translated into Aramaic by Onkelos, a Roman convert to Judaism.
AD Targum Jonathon The Prophets are translated into Aramaic by Jonathon Ben Uziel, a student of Hillel the Elder.
Bar Kockba letters The letters from General Simon Bar Kockba, during the second Jewish revolt against Rome, were written using the late Hebrew script (135).

Jewish Revolt
The Jewish revolt ends in failure and the Jewish people are expelled from the land of Israel. The Hebrew language ceases as their native language (135).
200
AD Peshitta The Hebrew Bible is translated into Aramaic.
Septuagint The writings and the prophets were translated into Greek by unknown translators.

300
AD

400
AD
Talmud
The Talmud is written in the Late Semitic script.

500
AD Vulgate The Latin Vulgate, consisting of the Hebrew Bible as well as the New Testament, was written by Jerome.

600
AD

700
AD
English
English langauge adopts the Roman alphabet.

800
AD

900
AD

1000
Modern Semitic
The development of the vowel pointings that are inserted into the text to represent vowel sounds.
AD
Aleppo Codex
The Aleppo Codex, the oldest known Hebrew Bible, is written with themodern Hebrew script by Jewish Masorites.

1100
AD

1200
AD

1300
AD

1400
AD

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Gutenburg Bible The Gutenburg Bible is printed and published and is a copy of the Latin Vulgate.
1500
AD

1600
AD
King James Bible
The King James Version of the Bible is published in English (1611).

1700
AD

1800

AD sacarphogus.png,scroll.png

Inscriptions Sarcaphogus (1855), Meshe Stele (1868), Siloam Inscription (1880) and the Nash Papyrus (1898) Discovered.
1900 Eliezer Ben-Yehuda Eliezer Ben-Yehuda begins a revival of the Hebrew language for the Jewish people.
AD Inscriptions Discoveries of the Serabit El-Khadim inscriptions (1905) and the the Gezer Calandar (1908) and the Lachish inscriptions (1935).
Dead Sea Scrolls Ancient Scrolls discovered in caves near the Dead Sea dating to the 1st C. BCE and the 1st C. CE (1947-1956).

Nation of Isarel
The state of Israel is established and Hebrew becomes the official language of Israel (1948).
2000
AD

Inscriptions Discoveries of the Tel-Dan inscription (1993), and the Wadi-El-Hhol inscription (1999).

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